The aortic valve is removed and replaced by the patient's pulmonary valve (this is known as an autograft).
The pulmonary valve is then replaced with a preserved human pulmonary valve, known as a homograft.)
The mechanical valve has the advantage of the longest durability and the lowest probability of re-operation. However, because of the nature of the prosthetic material in mechanical valves, long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is an absolute necessity.
The diseased valve is replaced using a tissue bioprosthesis (xenograft) or a preserved human valve (homograft).